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BIOS enables computers to perform certain operations as soon as they are turned on. The principal job of a computer’s BIOS is to govern the early stages of the startup process, ensuring that the operating system is correctly loaded into memory. BIOS is vital to the operation of most modern computers, and knowing some facts about it could help you troubleshoot issues with your machine.

POST
The first job of the BIOS after you switch your computer on is to perform the Power On Self Test. During the POST, the BIOS checks the computer’s hardware in order to ensure that it is able to complete the startup process. If the POST is completed successfully, the system usually emits a beep. If the test fails, however, the system generally emits a series of beeps. You can use the number, duration and pattern of these beeps to identify the cause of the test failure.

Startup
With the POST completed, the BIOS then attempts to load the operating system through a program known as a bootstrap loader, which is designed to locate any available operating systems; if a legitimate OS is found, it is loaded into memory. BIOS drivers are also loaded at this point. These are programs designed to give the computer basic control over hardware devices such as mice, keyboards, network hardware and storage devices.

Security
The BIOS can also play a role in computer security. Most BIOS software versions have the option to password-protect the boot process, which means that you must enter a password before any BIOS activity can take place. With the BIOS performing virtually all of its functions during startup, this effectively password-protects the operation of the whole computer. However, resetting a lost BIOS password can be time-consuming and involve working on some of the computer’s most sensitive components.

Hardware
The BIOS software itself generally resides on a Read-Only Memory, or ROM, or a flash memory chip attached to your computer’s motherboard. The location of the BIOS software on the chip is important, as it is the first software to take control of your computer when you turn it on. If the BIOS was not always located in the same place on the same chip, your computer’s microprocessor would not know where to locate it, and the boot process could not take place.

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A typical processor executes instructions one by one. But there may be occasions where the processor has to stop current instruction and execute some other program or code segment (residing in some other place). After doing this the processor returns to normal execution and continues from where it left off. A system call and a function call are such occasions. A system call is a call to a subroutine built in to the system. A function call is a call to a subroutine within the program itself.

What is a System Call?

System calls provide programs running on the computer an interface to talk with the operating system. When a program needs to ask for a service (for which it does not have permission to do that by itself) from the kernel of the operating system, it uses a system call. User level processes do not have the same permissions as the processes directly interacting with the operating system. For example, to communicate with and external I/O device or to interact with any other processes, a program uses system calls.

What is a Function Call?

A function call is also called a subroutine call. A subroutine (also known as a procedure, function, method or routine) is part of a larger program that is responsible for carrying out a specific task. The larger program may execute a heavy workload, and the subroutine may be performing just a simple task, which is also independent of the remaining program coding. A function is coded in such a way that it may be called multiple times and from different places (even from within other functions). When a function is called, the processor may go to where the code for the function is residing and execute the instructions of the function one by one. After completing the functions, the processor will return to exactly where it left off and continue the execution starting from the next instruction. Functions are a great tool for code reuse. Many modern programming languages support functions. A collection of functions is called a library. Libraries are often used as means of sharing and trading software. In some cases, the whole program could be a sequence of subroutines (e.g. threaded code compilation).

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1-)Risc’de komutlar sabit 32 bitliktir.Cisc’de komutların boyutu sabit değildir.

2-)Risc de load ve store komutu var Cisc de bunlara ilaveten komutlar var.

3-)Risc’de kodlar basittir.Cisc’de karmaşıktır.

4-) Risc’de program derlenince daha fazla makine kodu olacağından Cisc’ e göre daha fazla alan kapsar.

5-)Cisc’de belleğin şu gözü ile bu gözünü topla şuraya yaz vardır.Risc’de yoktur.

6-)Risc ‘de CPU’daki komut işleme daha hızlı oalcağından bu hızda çalışan CPU’ya hızlı RAM ve büyük önbelleklere ihtiyaç vardır.

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def compareScales(leftScaleList, rightScaleList):

  result = sum(leftScaleList) - sum(rightScaleList)    

  if result < 0:        

    return 1    

  elif result > 0:        

    return -1    

  else:        

    return 0

 

 

def WalnutsBinarySearch(walnuts,index):

  size = len(walnuts)

  half=(int)(size/2)

 

  if(size<2):

    return index

 

  if size%2==1: # Size tek ise ortaki elemana bakma

    if walnuts[half+1]>walnuts[half]:

      return half

    elif walnuts[half+1]<walnuts[half]:

      return half+1

    walnutsRight = walnuts[half+1:]

  else:

    walnutsRight = walnuts[half:]

  walnutsLeft = walnuts[0:half]

 

  durum = compareScales(walnutsLeft,walnutsRight)

  if durum == 0:

    return -1

  elif durum == 1:

    return WalnutsBinarySearch(walnutsLeft,index)

  else:

    return WalnutsBinarySearch(walnutsRight,index+half+size%2)

 

walnuts= [1,1,1,1,0.5,1,1,1,1]

print(WalnutsBinarySearch(walnuts,0))

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Film, ikinci dünya savaşı sırasında almanlar ile İngilizler arasında ki

Savaşta Alan Turing yeri ve önemi esas alarak, Alan Turing hayatını anlatıyor.

Alan Turing, ünlü bir matematikçidir ve elektrikli bir beyin

üzerinde çalışmalar yapmaktadır, bu beyin düşünce yapısının farklı olduğunu

söylemekle başlıyor. Bir insan beyni ile makine beyni arasında ki çalışma

mantığını anlatan bir oyundan bahsediyor. THE IMITION GAME, bu oyun bir

insana sorularak sorarak verilen cevaplar üzerinden değerlendirmeler yapıyor

ve bu şekilde bir makinanın çalışma şeklini açıklıyor.

Savaş sırasında, İngilizler Alan Turing den bu beyni tasarlamasını ve

nazilerin ( Almanların ) şifrelerini kırmasını istiyor. Bu istek üzerini Alan Turing

Enigma isimli küçük bilgisayarı yaratıyor. Bu bilgisayar belirli bir algoritmaya

göre nazilerin şifrelerini kırmayı başarıyor ancak bu şifrelerin deşifre olduğunu

anlaşılmaması için bu durumda hiçbir şey yapamıyorlar.

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