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In web development, such terms as ””web app””, ””front-end architecture””, ””Web 2.0””, and ””HTML5 apps”” are often used in a misleading context which doesn”t consider the full specifics of implementation and usage of web architectures. Today we”ll find out more about the web application architecture types in the light of the latest web trends and key issues that matter to software product owners.
We can outline 3 main web application architecture types and discuss their advantages and drawbacks. We can evaluate them according to three points of view: software owner, software developer (member of the dedicated team allocated to the project) and end user. Other possible examples basically come down to these three as subtypes.
First let”s define a web application: it”s a client-server application, where there”s a browser (the client) and a web server. The logic of a web application is distributed among the server and the client, there”s a channel for information exchange, and the data is stored mainly on the server. Further details depend on the architecture: different ones place and distribute the logic in different ways.
It”s hard to compare completely different architectures impartially. But we”ll try to, using several evaluation criteria.
Updates of data on pages, switching between pages (response time). Such qualities of user interface as richness and intuitivity.
Ability to save bookmarks and links to various sections of the website.
Well, this one speaks for itself.
Speed of development
Introduction of new features, refactoring, parallelization of the software development process.
Maximum speed of response from the server with minimum consumption of computation power.
Ability to increase computation power or disc space under increases in amounts of information and/or number of users. If an allocated scalable system is used, one must provide data consistency, availability and partition tolerance (CAP theorem). It”s also worth noting that the case, when the number of features/screens of the client app is increased at the software owner”s request, depends on the framework and implementation rather than the type of web application architecture.
Possibility and ease of automated unit testing.
Software product owner”s criteria
New functionality within minimal time and budget.
Users must be able to find the application through any search engine.
Besides software development proper, there are additional expenses: hardware, network infrastructure, maintenance.
The software owner must be sure that both business data and information about users are kept secure. As the main security criterion we”ll consider the possibility of changes in functionality of app behavior on the client side, and all associated risks. Standard dangers are the same for the compared architectures. We do not consider security on the server-client channel, because all these architectures are equally exposed to break-ins. This channel can be the same.
Conversion: website – mobile or desktop application
Conversion into a mobile or desktop application with minimal additional costs.
Some of these criteria might seem inaccurate, but the purpose of the article is not to show what”s good and what”s bad. It”s more of a detailed review that shows the possible options.
Let”s outline three main web-based application types according to the roles performed by the server and the client browser.
Type 1: server-side HTML web application
The most widespread web application architecture. The server generates HTML content and sends it to the client as a full-fledged HTML-page. Sometimes this architecture is called ””Web 1.0””, since it was the first to appear and currently dominates the sphere of web development.
Responsiveness/Usability: 1/5. The least optimal value among these architecture examples. A huge amount of data is transferred between the server and the client. The user has to wait until the whole page reloads, responding to trivial actions, for example, when only a part of the page needs to be reloaded. UI templates on the client depend directly on the frameworks applied on the server. Due to the limitations of mobile internet and huge amounts of transferred data, this architecture is hardly applicable in the mobile segment. There are no means of sending instant data updates or changes in real time. If we consider the possibility of real-time updates via generation of ready chunks of content on the server side and updates of the client (through AJAX, WebSockets), plus design with partial changes within a page, we”ll go beyond this architecture.
Linkability: 5/5. The highest of the three, since it”s the easiest implementable. It”s due to the fact that by default one URL receives particular HTML-content on the server.
SEO: 5/5. Rather easily implemented, similarly to the previous criterion. The content is known beforehand.
Speed of development: 5/5. This is the oldest architecture in web development, so it”s possible to choose any server language and framework for particular needs.
Scalability: 4/5. If we take a look at the generation of HTML, under the increasing load comes the moment when load balance will be needed. There”s a much more complicated situation with scaling databases, but this task is the same for these three examples of software architecture.
Performance: 3/5. Tightly bound to responsiveness and scalability. Performance is relatively low because a big amount of data must be transferred, containing HTML, design, and business data. Therefore it”s necessary to generate data for the whole page (not only for the changed business data), and all the accompanying information (such as design).
Security: 4/5. The application behavior logic is on the server side. However, data are transferred overtly, so a protected channel may be needed (which is basically a story of any architecture that concerns the server). All the security functionality is on the server side.
Conversion: website – mobile or desktop application: 0/5. In most cases it”s simply impossible. Rarely there”s an exception (more of exotics): for example, if the server is realized upon node.js, and there are no large databases; or if one utilizes third-party web services for data acquisition (however, it”s a more sophisticated variant of architecture). Thus one can wrap the application in node-webkit or analogous means.
Offline work: 2/5. Implemented with a manifest on the server, which is entered to HTML5 specifications. If the browser supports such a specification, all pages of the application will be cached: in case the connection is off, the user will see a cached page.
Type 2: JS generation widgets (AJAX)
The foremost advantage is that updates from the server arrive only for the part of the page requested by the client. It”s also good that widgets are separated functionally. A particular widget is in charge of a part of the page; partial changes will not affect the whole page.
Responsiveness/Usability: 3/5. The volume of transferred data for a part of a page is smaller than for the whole page, that”s why responsiveness is higher. But since a page is a set of widgets, the applicable UI templates in a web application are limited by the chosen UI framework. Cold start (the first full loading) of such a page will take a little longer. The content, which is fully generated and cached on the server, can be instantly displayed on the client; here time is spent on getting the data for the widget and, as a rule, on templating. At the first visit the website will not be that quick to load, but further it will be much more pleasant in use, if compared to sites based on the architecture of the first type. Also it”s worth to mention the possibility of implementation of ””partial”” loading (like it”s done on yahoo.com).
Linkability: 2/5. Here special tools and mechanisms are needed. As a rule, Hash-Bang mechanism is applied.
SEO: 2/5. There are special mechanisms for these tasks. For example, for promotion of websites based on this architecture it”s possible to predefine the list of promoted pages and make static URLs for them, without parameters and modifiers.
Performance: 4/5. The time and resources spent on generation of HTML content are relatively minor if compared to the time spent by the app on retrieving data from the databases, and on their processing before templating. Use of the extended type of this architecture (when data are transferred as JSON) lowers the traffic between the client and the server, but adds an abstraction level to the application: retrieval from database -> data processing, serialization in JSON -> API: JSON -> parsing of JSON -> binding of data object on the client to HTML.
Scalability: 4/5. Same as for the first type of architecture.
Testability: 1/5. It”s required to test the server side, the client code, and the web service which returns the data to update widgets.
Conversion: website – mobile or desktop application: 0/5. Same as for the first type of architecture.
Offline work: 1/5. The manifest mechanism works in this case, but there”s a problem with updating or caching the data displayed on the widget. This functionality has to be implemented additionally: in the manifest one can indicate only names of the files that will be cached from the server. Correlation between the widget template file, cached in the manifest, and the page behavior logic requires extra effort.
Type 3: service-oriented single-page web apps (Web 2.0, HTML5 apps)
The term ””Web 2.0”” isn”t quite correct here. One of peculiarities of Web 2.0 is the principle of involving users into filling and repeated adjustments of content. Basically the term ””Web 2.0”” means projects and services which are actively developed and improved by users themselves: blogs, wikis, social networks. This means Web 2.0 isn”t bound to one technology or a set of technologies.
Linkability: 1/5. One will need special tools and mechanisms, as well as frameworks which can use, for example, Hash-Bang mechanism.
SEO: 1/5. The hardest one to promote. If the entire app is promoted directly, there”s no problem: it”s possible to promote the application container. If it”s needed for a part of the application, a special mechanism will be needed for that purpose. Each more or less big search engine offers its own methods of standartization for this process.
Scalability: 5/5. The web logic is on the client side. There is no content generation on the server. When there”s an increase in the number of users, it”s required to scale only the web services that give the business data.
Conversion: website – mobile or desktop application: 5/5. A website becomes an application with the help of PhoneGap or a similar platform.
Offline work: 5/5. This architecture is a full-fledged application; it”s possible to save separate data, as well as parts of the application using any storage (for example, local storage). One more advantage is the possibility to switch data storage and management to the offline mode. To compare, the two aforementioned architectures are only partially functional in the offline mode. Here the missing data can be replaced with mocks, it”s possible to show alert windows or use data from the local storage, while synchronization may be left for later.
Thus we can see that there”s no perfect architecture. The optimal choice depends on tasks and priorities. If any criterion wasn”t mentioned here, it doesn”t mean it was ignored. It”s just the fact that for each particular software project every criterion has different importance. For every real software development project one of these examples may be defining. It”s also possible to optimize the architecture of the app or implement a hybrid architecture which will meet the specific business requirements.
Java - Numeric Analysis Solve Ax=B - Gaussian elimination - Matrix inversion method 25.10.2018Gizle
Nesneye yönelik analiz - HW1_LinearSolverDeluxe
|Gaussian Elimination Method||Matrix Inversion Method|
PLAN and CODE
Prepared by Group 1
CSE343 - Software Engineering
Gebze Technical University
November 15, 2017
The purpose of this document is to present a detailed description of the Plan and Code
which is part of web-based open-source DevOps software.It will explain the purpose and
features of the Plan and Code or rather Trello and Git tools that will be used.Additionally
the interfaces of the Plan and Code part and what can be done in Plan and Code part
and the constraints under which it must operate. This document is intended for users
of the software and also potential developers.
1.2 Document Conventions
This Document was created based on the IEEE template for System Requirement Spec-
1.3 Intended Audience and Reading Suggestions
Typical Users, such as students, who want to use DevOps e.g. (for managing their
Advanced/Professional Users, such as engineers or researchers, who want to use
DevOps portal for more demanding their projects plans.
Programmers who are interested in working on the project by further developing
it or x existing bugs.
1.4 Product Scope
Plan and code" part of DevOps portal is a tool that allows developers to plan their
work better and they can use it to synchronize their code very easily.Developers can
add new projects and represent their jobs with using cards.Every cards represents a new
assigned job for developer.In this way, Developers determines jobs done easily.
This is a software part a "DevOpslife cycle"
Trello”s website: https://trello.com/
Github”s website: https://github.com/
2 Overall Description
2.1 Product Perspective
Plan and code" part of the Dev-Ops portal is designed to handle projects and works in
it automatically via Trello Api. Project manager can start-up new projects and works
in it, developers can choose between these works and sent it to test when they nished
working on it.
Planning part”s main functionality is that all the project members can see process
of the project via Trello but all the required changes in Trello, can be made from our
portal. So this leads the project management to be more compact.
On the other hand, coding part of Dev-Ops portal will handle synchronization between
GitHub and Trello very eciently. Project members can see easily where their code right
2.2 Product Functions
1. New Project: Creation of new project
2. Show Projects: Displaying existing projects in Trello
3. Choose Project: Deciding which project will be current project
4. Current Project: Displaying current project in Trello
1. Add Work: Creating new work in current project
2. Show Works: Displaying existing works in Trello
3. Choose Work: Deciding which work will be tested
4. Current Work: Displaying current card in Trello
5. Show Work: Choosing this work as new job
6. Delete Work: Removing work from works list
1. Add Member: Authorize a new member in current project
1. Close branch: Sending current work to test
1. Get Current Project Link : Getting current project link for built team
2.3 User Classes and Characteristics
Typical Users, such as students, who want to be organized while developing pro-
grams not big projects.
Big Companies, which want to handle more than one projects at once. Developer
team and project managers can work together easily with this software.
2.4 Operating Environment
2.5 Design and Implementation Constraints
In the planning section, there are 5 lists by default including ToDo, Doing, Built, Test
and Deploy. So the manager can not set the number of lists and name of lists.
Each work has to pass successfully from all the lists until it is deployed. For example,
a non-built work can not be tested.
The manager can not manually switch works from one list to another.
2.6 User Documentation
Administrators create a project via Trello and authorize specic members for this project.
Members plan to do the work after the plan will be recorded in the section. A member
of the Coding team chooses one of the tasks to be done and indicates that he is working
on it, and the job goes to the doing section. After completing its work through github,
it says that it has delivered the built. Built members is delivered to the test members
if successful. test members is delivered to the deploy members if successful. Therefore,
the application will run after you complete certain steps on trello.
2.7 Assumptions and Dependencies
DevOps communicates via the trello and github tools, and there are some restrictions
on the use of these tools via the DevOps portals. The trello tool can only be used online
because the trello tool does not have Local Server support.
3 External Interface Requirements
3.1 User Interfaces
3.2 Hardware Interfaces
3.3 Software Interfaces
4 System Features
Everything you need to organize projects of any size. Open a card and you can add
comments, upload le attachments, create checklists, add labels and due dates, and
4.1.1 Description and Priority
Open a card to keep information such as attachments, checklists and due dates. Priority:
4.1.2 Stimulus/Response Sequences
Users can open and close cards,in case they are managers, they can assign cards to
4.1.3 Functional Requirements
REQ-1:Cards will not appear on the list when they are closed.Closed cards are considered
successful. REQ-2:Users are responsible for bad-input
4.2 User Management
What project managers do with users which are registered to the project
4.2.1 Description and Priority
Managing user in a project. Priority: High.
4.2.2 Stimulus/Response Sequences
Project Managers can add and remove anyone to the project and keep track of changes.
4.2.3 Functional Requirements
REQ-1: Those who are not registered to the system cannot be added to the project.
REQ-2: Users can use other tools when they are added. REQ-3: User information will
be stored in a database and will be compared when they log in.
A list is a collection of cards. They may represent a collection of ideas, things to
remember, or dierent stages of a work
4.3.1 Stimulus/Response Sequences
Users can create boards from cards they can also edit and remove them.
4.3.2 Functional Requirements
REQ-1:Boards must have cards. REQ-2:Empty boards must not be shown.
5 Other Nonfunctional Requirements
5.1 Performance Requirements
Plan and Code" is dependent on GitHub and Trello performances.
The board performance for boards which has lots of cards (>1000) the board might
not perform as well. Because Trello has to load open cards and attachments every time
a board is opened, boards with a large number of open cards may see slower load times
and generally reduced usability. We suggest having fewer than 1,000 open cards on any
Trello board (and under 500 if there are a lot of attachments or checklists on the cards).
5.2 Safety Requirements
"Plan and Code" is dependent on GitHub and Trello safeties.
GitHub provides dedicated rewall and VPN services to help block unauthorized sys-
tem access and also provides Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) mitigation services.
5.3 Security Requirements
GitHub provides dedicated rewall and VPN services to help block unauthorized system
access and also provides Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) mitigation services.
The Safe Harbor (http://export.gov/safeharbor/) framework used as a guideline for
good security practice for Trello. The Trello specic security policy can be found here
5.4 Software Quality Attributes
Plan and Code" provides to use planning and coding together with interactive way on
DevOps Portal from both experts and typical users. However, users must already have
a basic knowledge of Trello and GitHub before using it.
6 Other Requirements
6.1 Appendix A: Glossary
1. Project: Every project is represented as Board in Trello. When a project is created,
new Board is created in Trello.
2. Work: Every work is represented as Card in Trello. When a work is created, a
new Card is created in current board”s To Do" list in Trello. Card”s location in
board will change in time. Ex. if test is successful for any card, this card will be
carried to Done" list. When user chooses to start work on chosen work. Card
will be carried to Doing" list.
3. List: As mentioned above, Projects are represented as Boards in Trello.When a
project is created, there will be 6 default lists in this board as: To Do" Doing"
Build" Test" Deploy" Done"
4. Branch: Every work is represented as Branch in GitHub. When close branch is
pressed, code will be sent to test.
Teknoloji insan hayatının büyük bir parçasıdır ve teknolojimiz her geçen gün ilerlemektedir. Teknolojinin gelişmesiyle insan hayatı oldukça kolaylaşmakta ve biz hayallerimizde olan bir teknolojik günü yaşayacağız. Teknolojinin gelişimine tanık olmak hayal edebilmekten geçer ve bir sabah kalktığımızda bu teknolojiyi yaşayabiliriz. Sabah Kalktığımda uyandığımı algılayan bir teknoloji ve günaydın aydın bey şeklinde bir tabir kullanıyor ve benim gibi yalnız yaşayanlar için size yalnız olmadığınızı ve evde biri varmış havası yaratıyor. Mutfakta programlanmış olan kahve robotu çalışmaya başlıyor ve perdeler otomatik olarak açılmakta, şofben otomatik olarak su ısıtmaya başlamakta, banyoda temizlik ihtiyaçlarımı rahatça kullanabilmek için gerekli işleri yapmakta, ışıkları bir el çırpmasıyla açıp kapatabiliyorum. Bilgisayar ve televizyon sesi algılıyor ve kendilerine özel isimlerle, Sesli algılayan ve anlayan bir teknoloji sayesinde açmasını söyleyebiliyoruz ve kanalları değiştirmesini hatta belirli kanal isimlerini söyleyerek o kanalları açmasını sağlayabiliyoruz. Otomatik olarak belirli işleri yapan bir robot bize kahvaltımızı hazırlıyor ve günün haberlerini okumaya başlıyor bu sayede hem teknolojiden haberdar oluyoruz ve kahvaltımızı yapıyoruz. İşimize giderken evden çıktığımızda kapıları kilitlemek zorunda kalmıyoruz içeride olan güvenlik sistemi otomatik olarak kapıları kilitleyerek alarm sistemini devreye sokuyor. Dışarıda tek kişilik helikopterimiz bulunmakta fiyatı 10 bin 20 bin Türk lirası arası olan belirli yükseklik örneğin 30 metre ile sınırlı bir şekilde araç yolları üzerinde iş yerimize hızlı bir şekilde gidebilmemizi sağlayan ve bu teknoloji sayesinde araç yolları da oldukça boşalmış ve rahata kavuşmuş durumda, tüm araçların üzerinde güneş panelleri bulunmakta ve akaryakıttan sağlanabilecek her türlü tasarrufu sağlamaya çalışıyor ve ulaşım yolları olarak ekstra trenler bulunmakta bunlar hava da uçarak sadece ray üzerinden elektrik ve yön tarifini alan havada kafeterya gibi bir bölüme sahip olan bu tren hem daha hızlı hem daha güvenli hem de büyük bir yolcu kitlesine sahip olabiliyor. İş yerimize gittiğimiz de otomatik olarak giriş sistemleriyle bizi algılayan işe giriş ve çıkış saatlerimi rapor eden bir sistemle karşılaşıyoruz. Tamamı neredeyse teknoloji şirketi olan bu şirkette insan işi neredeyse yok denecek kadar az diyebiliriz. Bir çok robot insan gücü gerektiren işleri yapmakta ve insanlar sadece beyin olarak kullanılmakta büyük işyerleri ürünlerini satmak için bir yer altı ürün taşıma sistemi kullanmakta ve bu sitemde yeraltı treni gibi ancak içine sadece mal yüklenen sistemler bulunmakta bu sayede firmalar oldukça tasarruf yapmakta ve yolları kamyon veya araçlarıyla doldurmamaktadır. Bu işlerini çok hızlı ilerleten şirketler ekonomiye büyük katkıda bulunmaktadır. İşlerin bir çoğunu makinalar yaptıkları için insanlara daha çok vakit kalmakta ve teknoloji sayesinde tüm işlerini bilgisayarlar üzerinden yapabilmektedirler ve işyerlerine gelmeden gerekli işlemlerin bir çoğunu internet üzerinden yapıyorlar. Aileler Çocuklarını okullarına gönderdiklerinde, öğrenciler için tasarlanmış özel taşıma sistemiyle öğrencilerin kafalarını boşuna yorulmamakta ve derslerinde daha iyi başarı sağlanabiliyor. Öğrencilere verilen eğitimler daha ileri ve ağır düzeyde ve tüm dersler aynı zamanda kayıt olmakta derslerine gelemeyen öğrenciler ders biter bitmez e-okul veya üniversite sitelerine yüklenen kaçırdıkları dersin videoları sayesinde eğitimden geri kalmıyorlar. Ders süreleri daha uzun ancak ders katılma zorunlulukları bulunmamakta bu sayede öğrenciler hayatlarını daha eğlenceli yapabilmek için okula geliyorlar ve teknolojiyi öğrenmeden yaşam olmadığını bildikleri için daha da hevesle öğrenebiliyorlar. Genel Sınav sistemleri kalkmış durumda bu teknolojide yaşam için herkes bilmek öğrenmek zorunda ve insanlar severek yaptıkları işleri yapıyorlar. Bu ufak gibi gözüken şeylerde dünyanın en büyük gelişme payı eğitim olduğundan dolayı eğitime son derece önem verilmekte ve ordu gibi gereksiz şeylerden daha fazla para eğitime harcanmakta ve biliyorlar ki öğrenciler yeni teknolojinin geleceğidir. Online yaşamda insanlar her türlü gereksinimlerini karşılayabilmektedirler. Market alışverişlerini internet üzerinden yaparak evlere servis yapan bir sistem var ve adres diye bir şey artık bulunmamakta sadece konum noktaları ve bu konum noktaları üzerinden çalışan sistemler sayesinde ev alışverişini bulunduğunuz konum noktasına kadar insansız hava araçları sayesinde getirilebilmekte ve ayrıca internette insanlar istedikleri ürünü alabilmekte ve teknoloji dünyasında artık fiyat farkı diye bir şey kalmamakta tüm firmalar standart fiyatlar üzerinden satışlarını yapmakta ve insanların kazıklandık mı dolandırıldık mı soruları tamamen ortadan kaybolmaktadır. Genel kafeteryalar bulunmakta insanların buluşturan içinde kütüphane gibi sıcak ortamların bulunduğu devlet tarafından tasarlanan insanların evden daha çok o ortamlarda bulunduğu ve sıcak ilişkiler ve arkadaşlıklar da bulunduğu, ürünlerin tamamen standart fiyatlarında ve insanların içinde bulunduklarında zarar değil tasarruf ettiği bir alan ve bu ortamda son teknolojiler kullanılarak insanları teknolojiye bir adım daha iterken aynı zamanda insan ilişkileri kaybetmemeleri sağlamaya çalışıyor. Çünkü günümüz teknolojisi insanları birbirlerinden oldukça uzaklaştırmakta buna çözüm olarak böyle ortamlar sağlanıyor ve insanların sürekli teknoloji konuşabilmeleri için son teknolojileri kullanabiliyor. Ayrıca insanların sürekli ürün ve hizmetler için görüşlerini tavsiyelerini dinleyen sistemlere insanlar akıllarına gelen tüm fikirleri ve tavsiyeleri gidip söylemekte ve bunlar sürekli uygulanarak insanları bir adım daha teknolojiye yaklaştırmaktadır.